Summer AS XXXIV (2000)
Volume V, Issue 4 (#19)


From the Nachalnik

The Slavic Interest Group's website has moved! Given the current rather tenuous nature of my employment, it seemed unwise to continue to house SIG's home on my work account, so we have moved it to a more permanent home: http://slavic.freeservers.com. At the same time, the pages have been redesigned into a more logical flow and should be easier to use. Freeservers offers a great deal more services than my old university account, so we are optimistic that the move will be a good one. For the next couple of months, referring links on the old pages will direct people to the new pages, but please update your links and bookmarks at your earliest convenience.

Pennsic is fast approaching and we have compiled a list of Pennsic classes below that may be of interest to SIG members. It is almost certainly incomplete, but will give you a rough idea of what to do. The most important activity, of course, is the annual Slavic and East European Festival which will be held on Monday, August 14th from 7-10pm in AS 7. This is our standard party. I had hoped to have more details on it in this issue, but the basics are fairly straightforward: bring your projects, ideas, food, entertainment, and so on, and share them with others. If you are interested in volunteering to help organize, provide food or entertainment, or just have questions, contact Ilyana (Jennifer Miller, 3071 Cimarron Trail, Madison WI 53719, 608-288-0255, jdmiller2@students.wisc.edu).

We are still quite thin on material for the Newsletter. My special thanks to Predslava for getting me two pieces and to my book reviewers for their copy. Now that I have my Dictionary out of the way, I have time again to devote to writing pieces myself, but I do not want to have Slovo become my personal soapbox. Articles for Slovo do not need to be long or major scholarly tracts. The next deadline (for the Fall issue) will be October 1st. Think about writing something!


Pennsic Classes

By Paul Wickenden of Thanet and Ilyana Barsova

Aside from the Festival on Monday, there are a great variety of activities to do at Pennsic with relevance to the Slavic and East European world. It was not always the case, of course, but SIG members have been doing a great job at promoting study and interest in the region. Jadwiga and Yaakov, for example, are probably competing for some sort of record this year, offering several classes on Poland and Khazaria respectively.

The list here is not complete. In addition to what is listed here, Maria Pienkneplotno is offering fabric classes. There are also classes that may be of interest to SIG members, even if they don't cover our region. For example, Branwen ferch Elwynn ap Dafydd is teaching a class on Medieval Beekeeping. It is hard to tell if she'll cover Eastern Europe, but Russia was a big bee, wax, and honey producer, so the subject is relevant.

Wed 8/9
Pysanky: Decorating Ukrainian Eggs (Iaroslava Ivanova)

Thu 8/10
A Look at the Kingdom of the Khazaria (Yaakov Avraham)

Fri 8/11
What It Is to be a Khazar in the SCA (Yaakov Avraham)

Sat 8/12
Introduction to Medieval Poland (Jadwiga Zajaczkowa)

Sun 8/13
Egg Tempera for Beginners (Berkana von Metz)

Mon 8/14
Armenian Illumination (George Anne)

Tue 8/15
Panel Painting (Sr. Hildegarde)
Pysanky: Decorating Ukrainian Eggs (Iaroslava Ivanova)

Wed 8/16
A Look at the Kingdom of the Khazaria (Yaakov Avraham)
Egg Tempera for Beginners (Berkana von Metz)

Thu 8/17
What It Is to be a Khazar in the SCA (Yaakov Avraham)
Mediums (paints, gilding, egg tempera) (Annejeke MacAiodh)
Food of Medieval Poland and Rus (Jadwiga Zajaczkowa)
Russian for Court Heralds (Paul Wickenden of Thanet)

Fri 8/18
Introduction to Medieval Poland (Jadwiga Zajaczkowa)
Armenian Illumination (George Anne)
Icon Painting Demonstration (Sr. Hildegarde)


Are Sarafans Period?

By Paul Wickenden of Thanet

One of the questions that seems to vex my wife (and probably quite a few other people in SIG) is the question of what people wore in period in Russia. In particular, what pieces of 19th century folk costume (such as what one finds so often in books about Russian costumes) existed in period? For example, we know that the masculine sarafan is a period piece of costuming, but what about the feminine equivalent?

Now, I am not terribly interested in costuming myself, but the question of the period sarafan has always sat in the back of my mind. While working on the article on bird bynames (see below), I idly decided to look up the word sarafan in the same dictionaries I was looking for birdnames in. As expected, I discovered the 14th century reference to the masculine kaftan-like robe that is recorded in the Nikitinskii manuscript (and which has been used to date the clothing to period) but I also discovered a fascinating reference to a possible mention of a woman's sarafan.

It took several hours to track down the source of the citation, but at last I found it in Akty solovetskogo manastyria: 1572-1584 [Acts of the Solovetskii Monastery: 1572-1584] (Leningrad: Nauka, 1990), pages 101-2. The act in question (#645) is the will of Ovdot'ia Ivanova doch' Goluba and is dated to 1577. In this will, Ovdot'ia gives various sums of money to her servants, gives lands that she owns to her son, and then gives a detailed inventory of clothing items to her granddaughter Mavfa Agafonova doch'. This inventory of items includes a pair of earrings, 20 buttons, 13 rubashkas, a shapka of crimson damask linen, two "boiaress's" shubas, and two sarafans "decorated and quilted in white."

Having just discovered this document last week, I honestly have not had sufficient time to examine it fully, but hope to do so before the next Slovo. But what does it tell us? We now know with near-certainty that there was a woman's garment called a sarafan in 1577. We do not know what it looked like and we do not know how long it had existed prior to this date. Was it a common garment or something extraordinary? The answers to these and many other questions await!


Russian Love

By Predslava Vydrina

Did you know that Courtly Love was unknown in medieval Russia? Well, I cannot say with absolute certainty that it was unknown (as there is no way of knowing all the books that were read, much less those that were read at one time by single individuals), but there is no indication that the literary or social aspects of Courtly Love had any impact either on Russian medieval literature or on the culture as a whole.

First let's take a quick look at some aspects of Courtly Love, namely service to the Lady as to one's liege Lord, unattainability of the Lady, and, later, Christian overtones in which the Virgin Mary replaces the Lady and striving for Christian virtues replaces service to the Lady (I do realize that there is more to it than this, but space limits, and so on ...). In Courtly Love, the love of a man towards a woman is exalted and even sanctified, the search for love becomes a spiritual and philosophical quest. This opens the way to our own, modern and mundane understanding of love, marriage, and relationships. Courtly Love also constitutes one of the brightest images we, in the XX century, have of the Middle Ages.

But what happens if the entire concept of love between a man and a woman never was considered in these terms? What if the concept of marriage was never challenged by the idea that love outside of wedlock, even for married people, could be justified and even admired? Mind you, I am not saying that Courtly Love invited (much less condoned) infidelity, but only that it depicted the institution of marriage as something strictly human -- and therefore fallible -- and not flawless like Perfect Love.

That is not to say that love and passion, before, after or in marriage, never occurred in Russia -- both civil and canon (Church) law address these issues, therefore they did arise -- but laws are not the only element which molds the mindset and attitudes of the people. Courtly Love was a powerful agent in the transformation of attitudes and philosophy. And it was absent from Russian culture. Therefore the perception of love and marriage in medieval Russia is almost an alien thing to our minds.


Russian Ornithological Bynames

By Paul Wickenden of Thanet

A popular medieval and SCA naming practice is the use of zoological bynames, that is, using the name of an animal as a surname or descriptive element (e.g., Drozdov, Gusev, Sokolov, Zhuravlev, etc.).

While the popularity of the practice in the SCA probably is attributable to fantasy novels, the frequency of the practice in medieval Russia has several explanations. First of all, animal names were sometimes used as given names and could be passed on as patronymics. A child who bore a patronymic based on the father's (zoological) given name would have a byname element that would be completely indistinguishable from a zoological byname. Put in more simpler terms, did Ivan Orlov translate as "John, son of Orel" or "John the Eagle?" Without a pedigree, it is impossible to know and (thankfully) completely unimportant to us as reenactors. Both possibilities are reasonable. Another explanation is that a person might name themselves after an animal that they worked closely with. Iurii Golubev ("George the Pigeon") might be a breeder of pigeons. However, there were also plenty of occupational bynames that described animal husbandry, so this is less likely. A more probable reason to bear a zoological byname is because of one's desire to invoke the animal in question (Ivan Orlov might see the eagle as a strong animal and wish to claim such strengths for himself).

Unbegaun (p. 186) explains that the most common zoological bynames in Russian are based on the names of birds. Of the 100 most common surnames, nine of them are based on the names of birds. While he is speaking of modern naming practices, it is readily apparent that bird names were common in period also.

I have assembled here a list of ornithological bynames found in period. The list was begun off of the surnames listed by Boris Unbegaun in his Russian Surnames (pp. 188-189) and amended to as I found names that Unbegaun had not included. My highest priority was to find dated references to the actual bynames in period. To do this, I simply used the third edition of my Dictionary of Period Russian Names. When that proved to be impossible, I tried to find the bird's name in use as a given name in my Dictionary (after all, if it was used as a given name, it could be used as a patronymic). If neither of these options worked, I turned to dictionaries of period Russian. Beginning with Sreznevskii's Slovar' drevnerusskogo iazyka (the modest Russian equivalent of the OED), I searched for period references to the bird's name. Where Sreznevskii failed me, I pulled out the 23 volume (and growing) Russian Academy of Sciences's Slovar' russkogo iazyka. While this monstrousity only goes up to "skoryi" so far and it tends to focus on 17th century sources, it is pretty safe to say that it is the dictionary to end all dictionaries. While finding a bird's name in a dictionary of period Russian would not prove that the bird's name was used as an anthroponym, the SCA currently does not require proof of this for registering names. At the risk of oversimplification, if the word is period and words like it were used to create bynames, then you can register the byname.

Here are the bird names that can be positively identified as being used in period as bynames (with their first date of appearance and the page from Wickenden that they came from): Bird, little {Ptitsyn (c1495 [286])}; Blackbird {Drozdov (c1495 [76])}; Buzzard {Sarychin (c1495 [307])}; Capercailzie {Glukharev (1614 [99])}; Chicken, cock {Petukhov (1552 [266]), Kurov (c1495 [176])}; Chicken, hen {Klushin (1614 [151]), Kuritsyn (1573 [177]), Kurochkin (1616-24 [177])}; Cormorant {Baklanov (1495-9 [16])}; Crane {Zhuravlev (1604 [422])}; Crow {Kargashin (1500 [132]), Voronin (c1495 [402])}; Cuckoo {Zagoskin (1600 [410])}; Dove {Golubin (1598 [101])}; Duck {Utin (945 [382]), Utkin (1539 [382])}; Duck, drake {Seleznev (c1495 [310])}; Duck, mallard {Krekshin (1500 [168])}; Eagle {Orlov (c1495 [250])}; Falcon {Sokolov (1498 [338])}; Falcon (special breeds) {Balabanov (1585 [17]), Choglokov (1565 [50]), Cheglokov (1498 [50])}; Finch, gold- {Shcheglov (1597 [317]), Shchegolev (1591 [317])}; Finch, pine- {Shchurov (1578-9 [319])}; Goose {Gusev (1551 [110])}; Goose, gander {Gusakov (1648 [110])}; Grey-hen {Teterin (1578 [363]), Teterkin (1st Half of 16th Century [363])}; Grouse, hazel {Riabchikov (1539 [296])}; Hawk {Iastrebov (1545 [116]), Iastrebtsov (1504-5 [116])}; Hen-harrier {Lunev (c1495 [195])}; Heron {Chaplin (1577-8 [48])}; Jackdaw {Galkin (1500 [95])}; Kite {Korshunov (1555 [161])}; Landrail {Korostelev (1498 [160])}; Lark {Zhavoronkov (15th Century [417])}; Linnet {Chechetkin (1545 [50]), Chechetov (1596 [50])}; Loon {Gagarin (1500 [94])}; Magpie {Sorokin (c1495 [340])}; Martlet {Strizhev (1619 [348]), Strizhkov (1620 [348])}; Nightingale {Solov'ev (1569 [339])}; Owl, brown- {Sychev (c1495 [357])}; Partridge {Kuroptich (1583 [177])}; Pigeon {Golubev (c1495 [101]), Golubtsov (1615 [102])}; Pigeon, wood- {Viakhirev (1648 [393])}; Plover {Zuev (1594-5 [426]), Zuikov (1571 [426])}; Quail {Perepelkin (1594-7 [263])}; Raven {Voronov (c1495 [402]), Voronkov (1588-9 [402]), Vorontsov (c1495 [402])}; Rook {Grachev (1608-9 [105])}; Seagull {Chaikin (1580 [48])}; Siskin {Chizhov (1495 [56]), Chizhikov (1646 [56])}; Snipe {Kulikov (1545 [174])}; Sparrow {Vorob'ev (1551 [402])}; Starling {Skvortsov (1584-6 [333])}; Swallow {Kasatkin (1543 [133]); Swan {Lebedev (c1495 [183])}; Teal {Chirkov (1627 [55]), Chirkin (1571 [55])}; Thrush {Drozdov (c1495 [76])}; Tomtit {Remezov (1495 [295]), Remizov (1637 [295]), Sinitsin (1495 [329])}; Woodcock {Kulikov (1545 [174])}; and Woodpecker {Diatlov (1501 [66])}

And then there are the animal names that could only be documented as given names found in Wickenden: Bullfinch {Snegirev (from Snegir', 1536 [336]), Snigirev (Snigir', 1537 [336])}; Buzzard {Sarychev (Sarych, 1597 [307])}; Chicken, cock {Kochetov (Kochet, 1623 [152])}; Crow {Kargin (Karga, 1614 [132])}; Eagle, golden- {Berkutov (Berkut, 1597 [25])}; Hawk {Kaniukov (Kaniuk, 1545 [131])}; Jay {Soikin (Soika, 1566 [338])}; Landrail {Derkachev (Derkach', 1565 [65])}; Lapwing {Chibisov (Chibis, 1582 [54])}; and Parrot {Popugaev (Popugai, 1642 [276])}

Finally, there are the bird names that I could find in dictionaries. Here, the difficulties are enormous. For example, Sreznevskii provided virtually no direct help at all. I could not find kuropatka (partridge) in the dictionary, but was able to find kuroptina (partridge meat) dated to the 16th century (Vol I: 1379). Obviously, if partridge meat is period, so is the bird, but in what spelling? The word kuropatka turns out to be post-period (see below) so the modern byname from that word (Kuropatkin) probably is as well. Lastochka (swallow) could also not be found (and also turns out to be post-period), but the period variations of lastovitsa and lastun (both dated to the 15th century [Vol II: 12]) could be. Hypothetically, these two names would create the bynames: Lastovitsin and Lastunov.

The Academy of Sciences opus was somewhat (but only slightly) more helpful. We can use it to indirectly document several additional bynames: Cuckoo {Kukuvitsin (from kukuvitsa, 14th century [VIII:113]), or Kukavitsin (kukavitsa, 16th century [VIII: 113]) -- although the modern Kukushkin (kukushka, 17th century [VIII: 113]) is out of period}; Oriole {Ivolgin (ivolga, 15th century [VI: 77])}; and Peahen {Pavin (pava, 16th century [XIV: 111] and derived from the German pfawe)}.

Far more interesting (for a herald or an onomast, but probably not to someone trying to document a name) were the large number of fairly common birds whose names turned out to be post-period (or, at least, whose names could be documented only to post-period). These included: Finch {Ziablitsin (from ziablitsa, 17th century [VI:72])}; Goatsucker {Kozodoev (kozodoi, 17th century [VII: 227])}; Nightjar {Kozodoev (kozodoi, 17th century [VII: 227])}; Partridge {Kuropatkin (kuropatka, 1696 [VIII:140])}; Swallow {Lastochkin (lastochka, 1705 [VIII:178])}; and Turkey {Indeikin (indeika, 17th-18th centuries [VI: 235])}.

A Note on Pigeon Breeds. Unbegaun (190) adds that his list was only the beginning of bird names. There were a series of names specifically for pigeon breeders that described salient features of the pigeons that they bred ("white-wing," "red-feather," etc.). Many of these names are period as the following list of such surnames (taken from Wickenden) shows: Black-heel {Chernopiatyi (1588-9 [53])}; Black-neck {Chernoshein (1621 [53]}; Blue-spotted {Siniavin (1577-8 [329])}; Grey-heel {Seropiatich (1470 [313])}; White-body {Belotelov (1498 [24]); White-eye {Beloglazov (1598 [23]); White-leg {Belokopytov (1610 [23])}; White-nose {Belonosov (1602 [23])}; White-tail {Beloguzov (1545 [23])}; White-wing {Belokryl'tsev (1596 [23])}; and Yellow-foot {Zheltonogov (1590 [418])}.

And again, there are several given names found in Wickenden that could be used to create bynames, including: Black-ear {Chernoukhov (from Chernoukh, 1552 [53])}; Black-tail {Chernoguzov (Chernoguz, 1646 [52])}; Blue-nose {Sinenosov (Sinenos, 1623 [329])}; Red-feather {Krasnoperkin (Krasnoperka, 1618 [168])}; Red-neck {Krasnoshein (Krasnosheia, 1595 [168])}; White-cheek {Beloshchekov (Beloshchek, 1539 [24])}; and Yellow-nose {Zheltonosov (Zheltonos, 1615 [418]).

It is theoretically possible to mix and match colors and body parts, thus creating dozens of additional byname possibilities. Now, it is likely that the these bynames described other animals' (and even human) traits. Names like "white-beard" (Beloborod), for example, probably do not describe birds!


Review: Gold of the Kremlin

By Predslava Vydrina

While attending the Known World Heraldic Symposium in June, I had a chance to visit the exhibit "Gold of the Kremlin" at the Houston Natural Science Museum. This exhibit continues throughout most of the summer.

The exhibit was organized in chronological order, although I was not always able to view it in the intended sequence (the exhibit is very popular and viewers tended to crowd the display cases). Nevertheless, a sense of progression and continuity is perceptible. One thing that helped was that recorded tours are available at no charge. The main advantage of the recorded tour was that I did not have to stand in one spot to read the comments. Instead, I could walk around the display case and stay out of the way of other visitors. As for the recorded narrative: for the most part, the recordings repeat the tags on the cases, but occasionally, they provide additional information.

The set-up of the exhibit was particularly interesting. Each case, often containing several displays, was set away from the wall. It was possible to look at each object from every angle. With a little knowledge of Russian art and culture, it was possible to see details that were not pointed out by the tags or the recordings. For instance, on the back of many reliquaries, there is a list of relics (which, I had to assume, were once contained in the small cases). Probably of even greater interest were the backs of icons, since the more technical aspects are usually disregarded in museum exhibits.

Although the number of objects dating to our period was relatively small, each one of them was fascinating, and the collection contained numerous items from the gray period (1600 to 1650), as well as later pieces that were created in a very similar style. The tags provided very useful facts and dates: when a particular type and style first appeared, and so forth.

Even 19th- and 20th-century pieces were well worth the time I spent looking at them. From Faberge eggs to jewelry pieces of the 1990s, there was much to gasp at. Unfortunately, at $11 (including general museum admission), the show is a bit expensive, especially if one had to travel to Houston in the first place. A catalog of the exhibit is available for about $50 (hardcover), and the gift shop itself is worth a visit. Unfortunately, the gift shop is only accessible through the exhibit.


Book Reviews

  • Paul Robert Magocsi. Historical Atlas of East Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1993.

    Magocsi's book, the first in a substantial series studying East Central Europe, functions well as an introduction and quick reference guide to students of Central and Eastern Europe. Following chronological order, the work illustrates the political, administrative, and even certain religious changes in the region from 400 to 1992. Magocsi's analysis allows for understanding of both an individual nation and the region at specific eras. This work proves a valuable tool and should greatly aid individuals considering Central and Eastern European personas, especially Western and Southern Slavic personas.

    For the series, Magocsi's editors define the boundaries of East Central Europe by rather diplomatic methods: linguistically to the west, politically to the east, and geographically to the north and south. Thus, the East Central European region borders the Germanic and Italian speaking countries, the Russian Federation, and the Baltic and Mediterranean seas. By this given definition of East Central Europe, Magocsi analyzes the Albanians, Bulgarians, Czechs, Greeks, Magyars (Hungarians), Poles, Romanians, Slovaks, and the former Yugoslavian peoples. However, Magocsi takes liberty with the area and extends his scope to include Austria, Belarus, most of Germany, most of Italy, Lithuania, part of Latvia, Moldova, the western most of Russia (primarily Kaliningrad), western Turkey, and most of Ukraine. By this liberal interpretation, Magocsi examines roughly one-third of the European continent.

    Although only the first 53 pages cover the time period relevant to the SCA, Magocsi offers the medieval student a wonderful survey into East Central European history. Along with a clear narrative, the atlas contains detailed yet understandable colored maps and tables. Magocsi obviously utilizes maps reflecting border changes but also includes maps of select cities, economic patterns, and religious situations. Readers will find in this work such maps are migration of the Slavs; the missions of Cyril and Methodius; the Mongol invasions; city layouts of Cracow, Vienna, and Prague; and the monasteries of Mount Athos. With the clarity and variety of information Magocsi presents, SCAdians will quickly find merit in Magocsi's work.

    Magocsi also uses a small yet beneficial characteristic in the atlas: where appropriate, he lists the various names of cities. For purposes of the SCA, people will find this advantageous not only in research but also for furthering the role-playing. In short, most groups have their own set of names for the cities. How one refers to a city tells a great deal as to their political and social orientation. For example, the western Ukrainian city of L'viv has seven other names: Ilyvó by the Magyars, Lemberg by the Germans, Leopolis by the Lithauanians, Lvov by the Russians, Lwów by the Poles, and Lemberik and Lvuv by the Jews. SCAdians should definitely find this subtle point useful for their personae.

    I agree with the "Slavic Review" when it calls the work a "magnificent introduction to the subject." However, the coherent narrative and various detailed maps have much to offer any reader. People, expert and novice alike, interested in Central and Eastern Europe will find Magocsi's book a great tool and well worth the time to read.

    -- Gavrick Gavrilovich



  • Marcus Tanner. Croatia: A Nation Forged in War. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

    Despite my ethnic heritage, as a member of the western world I have felt a great deal of lack in my personal understanding of the Balkans, especially Croatia, the land my grandfather left in the early years of the 20th century. Marcus Tanner's incredibly rich work, Croatia: A Nation Forged in War, increased my understanding of the history and politics of the southern slavs (i.e. "Yugo-Slavs") tremendously.

    The timeline of this study covers Croatian history from roughly the 4th century to the present. Even before the baptism of Viseslav in 800, when Croatians formally embraced Christianity, they flourished as a pastoral tribal culture in what is now modern-day Ukraine, Poland, and Belarus. The first four chapters of this book, "The Unfaithful Croats," "Croatia under the Hungarians," "The Ramparts of Christendom," and "The Remains of the Remains," offer a very useful discussion of medieval Croatian history and culture.

    Sometime before the 8th century, the Croat clans crossed the Danube and fanned out, migrating toward the Adriatic coastline of Dalmatia. These settlers blended their traditions with the lingering Roman influences in this region. The early Croats assimilated themselves well to the local culture and were considered quite civilized.

    Medieval Croatia became a noteworthy military power under Tomislav (910-c929), even rivaling forces of Venice. During this time, though, a major dispute was going on within the Croatian Church. The archbishopric of Split, which was closely aligned with Roman papacy, opposed use of Glagolitic script and saying Mass in the vernacular, both popular in the Slavic bishopric of Nin. Succinctly put, this socio-political discord divided Croatia just enough to allow neighboring Hungary to take advantage of the strife.

    In 1091, King Lazlo of Hungary met with no resistance when he invaded northern Croatia. He claimed the throne shortly after the death of his brother-in-law, King Zvonimir of Croatia. Lazlo's succession was the beginning of a long relationship between the kingdoms of Hungary and Croatia.

    The union of Hungary and Croatia kept invaders from completely overrunning the region for many centuries. While it did gain control of some Dalmatian coastal cities, such as Zadar, Venice's territorial ambitions were kept in check. Croatia also survived the Mongol incursions of the 13th century.

    In the early years of the 16th century, the Hungarian aristocracy diluted its monarchy's power and unwittingly left that country vulnerable to Ottoman invasions. Sensing this exposure, Croatian nobles offered their loyalty to the Habsburg emperors as early as 1521. Unfortunately Croatia did not receive enough military support from the Habsburgs before a great deal of land was lost to the Ottomans. Only toward the end of the middle ages did the Turks lose their grip over Croatia.

    Personally, I believe that I will be able to use Tanner's detailed work to help develop a southern Slavic persona that will not only allow me to enrich my participation in the SCA, but also provides me with a deeper appreciation for a significant aspect of my personal ethnic identity.

    -- Lydia of Aire Faucon


    Resources

  • A good selection of books and other things Polish is available from Polart. They have a website (http://www.polart.com) as well as traditional ordering methods (Polart, 5700 Sarah, Sarasota FL 34233-3446, 800-278-9393).


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    The original authors retain the rights to their works. Please contact them directly for permission to reprint. Uncredited material is the property of the publisher.

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